After you have created your source introduction, your next step should be source integration (actually citing the source). In general, there are three basic ways you could do it:
- Direct Quotation
- Combination of both
Direct quotation is exactly what it sounds like it is—it is the direct quoting of another author’s words or ideas word-for-word. To illustrate, let’s return to our example from the last section. As a reminder, the prompt question the example quote will be supporting is this one:
Applying the skills learned in the Introducing the Source lesson, the quote introduction becomes the following:
Now, imagine for a moment that one of the benefits you want to focus on in your essay is the family council’s ability to protect the family from the temptations of the outside world. Based on the thoughts shared in M. Russell Ballard’s Conference talk, a good supporting quote for this “benefit” might be this one:
Based on this quote, a good application of “direct quotation” with the source introduction we already created might be the following:
Ponder and Record
What quote from your own source materials might be a good fit for the “direct quote” method of quote integration?
Another approach you can take to quote integration is the use of paraphrasing. Unlike a direct quote where the author’s words are quoted word-for-word, a paraphrase is a summary of another person’s words or ideas. To illustrate, let’s return to our example from the last section. As you likely remember, the selected quote from M. Russell Ballard was the following:
When seeking to paraphrase instead of directly quote a source, the first question you’ll want to ask yourself is, “what is this person trying to say?” then perhaps followed by, “can it be summarized in a more clear and simple way?”
Ponder and Record
- Looking over Elder Ballard’s quote above, what would you say his overall point is?
- If you had to summarize his message in a brief sentence, what would that sentence say?
Elder Ballard makes lots of points in his quote, but given the fact we want to draw attention to the family council’s beneficial ability to protect the family from the outside world’s temptations, perhaps our best summary would be the following:
Notice how Elder Ballard’s tone and ideas are accurately represented in the paraphrase above even though they are not quoted word-for-word? Notice also how there is enough difference in word selection and word ordering that, while representing Elder Ballard’s quote accurately, it is in no way a direct quote? This is what you will want to try to accomplish when paraphrasing. You’ll want it to be an accurate summary of the author’s ideas, but also different enough in word choice and order that it in no way plagiarizes this author’s words.
Combination of Both
One final approach you can take to quote integration is a combination approach—meaning paraphrase combined with direct quotation. While generally considered a more advanced approach to quote integration, this approach tends to get rid of the less applicable parts of a direct quote. It then helps the writer to get to the main point much more quickly and effectively.
Whenever you are considering taking a combination approach to quote integration, the main question you should be asking yourself is, “which part of this quote contains the most important information?”
Returning to our example quote from Elder Ballard, what part of his quote might be the most important part to share given your essay’s focus? How could you effectively combine it with the source introduction you already created?
Well, based on the benefit you want to highlight in your essay (the family council’s ability to protect family members from outside temptations), perhaps the most important part of that quote is the section that focuses on the family council’s ability to “protect us from the evils of the world.” Based on this selection, an effective use of direct quotation combined with paraphrase might be the following:
Ponder and Record
- Look over the direct quote example as well as the paraphrase example and then compare it to the combination example above. What pieces of each example appear in the combination example?
- Which approach do you feel is most clear and effective given the purpose of the essay as well as the audience of the essay?
- Look over your own direct quote and paraphrase examples. How could you use them both to create a combination approach to quote integration?
Need More Help?
- Study other Writing Lessons in the Resource Center.
- Visit the Online Tutoring Resources in the Resource Center.
- Contact your Instructor.
- If you still need help, Schedule a Tutor.